Just some links I’ve found useful…
Propane Lines and Quick Connects
Just some links I’ve found useful…
Every time I looked at the Airstream, I wanted to immediately take the old, rusty a/c off. I resisted doing it last fall (so there wasn’t a gaping hole all winter), but even though it’s now Spring and raining quite a bit, I just couldn’t hold myself back any longer.
Someone installed the a/c that was up there with about a million tiny screws (vs. rivets) and a WHOLE lot of goo. The installation included two aluminum “L” rails running the length of the a/c unit. I’m not sure what they were for (condensation?), but to me they were just more garbage to remove. I waited till the hottest part of the day and peeled back as much goo from where I could tell the screws were, and then unscrewed as many as I could. I think I got pretty lucky, ’cause there were only about 4 that didn’t back out. Those four I grabbed with a vice grip from below to turn, and once they were backed out enough, I grabbed them from above.
I probably should have waited and gotten some help from a friend to bring the a/c down, but I was on a rampage, so I just laid some old sleeping bags on the Airstream skin to avoid scratching anything, and then slid the unit over and down the rails of my ladder. That thing was heavy. I texted my dad a pic to show him how strong I am.
So what was left was a gaping hole and a lot of nasty goo (from the looks of it, silicone, latex, vulkem, and butyl tape). I waited till the hottest part of the next day and scraped as much off as I could with a dull chisel (to avoid scratches). Then I used Goof Off, a scotch brite sponge, a rough rag, and a brass wire brush on the end of my drill to remove a sufficient amount of what was left. I didn’t go to town getting it spic ‘n’ span because I still don’t know what I’m going to do up there to finish things off (bubble sky light? gunner’s touret? sunbathing deck?), so I’ll wait until then to make things pretty.
Once the skin was cleaned up, E and I buck riveted all the screw holes closed. I put a dab of TremPro 635 on each hole before setting the rivet, so I’m pretty confident that everything is water tight.
There were a couple screw holes that were actually “double drilled” (two holes right on top of each other, but simply putting two rivets right on top of each other seemed to do the trick (luckily you can’t really see this stuff from the ground).
Now I just have to decide what to do with the hole that’s left. There’s a tiny chance that I’ll put a new, smaller a/c back on the roof, but I really like the clean look not having the a/c on the roof, and I’m considering installing a split on the tongue. For camping this summer (in our friend’s yards), I’m actually just going to put a window unit in the access opening where the water heater used to be.
Oddly enough, the highly rated, *almost* EnergyStar (missed the mark by .1 points –so essentially EnergyStar rated without the upcharge) window unit I found is EXACTLY the same size as the hole that already existed for the old water heater. How lucky is that? I will be making a sliding system from heavy duty computer-rack sliding rails so the unit can simply slide out when we reach our destination, and then back in when we’re ready to go! I’m not sure yet if this will be just an auxiliary unit to cool the bedroom and complement a “whole trailer” unit or if it will work (in tandem with some fans and perhaps even some ducting) to cool the whole Airstream.
NOTE: This is an unfinished post, but I had several people asking me about what I’d found thus far in regard to sealants and “caulk,” so I thought it would just be easier to post my research so far, rather than have to keep e-mailing people updates. This post is definitely subject to change, and should also “read” better when I’ve finished it. On top of that, it would seem my original saved draft has mysteriously “disappeared,” so I need to figure out where all the stuff I had already typed regarding caulk and sealant went. [grrr]
There are SO MANY different kinds of stuff to use for sealing seems and leaks in an Airstream. The Original stuff used in manufacturing was called Vulkem 116, and it’s still available (either as Vulkem 116 or TremPro 626), but the original Vulkem company was bought out by TremPro. Vulkem 116 is gritty and will stick to EVERYTHING. It also takes FOREVER to cure (so cleanup rags will remain gooey for days).
There are a LOT of varying opinions about what’s best to use for what, so I am posting what I’ve learned from researching and using the various products.
The original factory “caulk” is Vulkem 116 (gray), and is now marketed as either Vulkem 116 (the original name) or TremPro 626. It’s a texturized (gritty, like it contains sand) poly that takes FOREVER to cure (which can be a good thing when you’re talking Airstream). The “official” cure rate is 48-72 hours, but it can take a lot longer than that, depending on the actual environmental conditions. Vulkem 116 also cures fairly hard when completely cured, and is thus best for exterior panel seals, a/c installation, setting window frames, etc.
Vulkem 631 is Vulkem 116 but in different colors.
TrempPro 636 (gray) has a slow cure rate (4 hours), has more solvent (better for exterior applications), and is non-textured (smooth).
TremPro 635 (gray) has a faster cure time (90 minutes), and is a low VOC/solvent free silane terminate poly. So far, this stuff is my favorite, especially for things on the inside. If you’re doing Airstream restoration, I recommend having at least two tubes of this stuff around, as it’s not available from a lot of places and often takes a while to ship and arrive.
Sikaflex 221 (black) has a fast cure time (60 min.), but seems to require a cleaner surface for adhesions, whereas the Vulkem and TremPro will stick to just about anything. Some people think it looks better (smoother, more like typical caulk) and is a little easier to work with (doesn’t stick to everything). It’s typically used for things like interior vent, window, latch, etc., applications.
The products above are for more “construction” type applications. There are several products like that can be used to seal tiny cracks and leaks around rivets, etc. These sealers actually wick into the cracks and crevices, whereas the products above are more for adhesion and filling larger gaps and holes.
Acryl-R seems to be a lot of people’s favorite for a wicking sealant, but it takes a special applicator. The “go to” product for sealing on the road seems to be Captain Tolley’s Creeping Crack Cure.
Parbond from Parr is a sort of “in between” product that comes in a “roll-up” tube (like toothpaste) instead of a caulking tube. It is silver, so shows less than something like Sikaflex on exterior applications. This is a good product to have with you on the road when you don’t want to store a caulking gun and larger amounts of sealant.
Butyl Putty Tape is what you need to use when setting windows, a/c, vents, and other things that have a collar and set in to a hole in your Airstream exterior. This soft, flexible product is like a roll of flat Silly-Puddy that will seal two surfaces together and keep them that way.
Walbernizer specifically formulated for Airstream coated aluminum surface.
When you park your Airstream, it’s rarely on perfectly level ground. Chocks and blocks of wood or rubber under and around the wheels can help even things out and keep the trailer from moving, but stabilizer jacks are best for keeping your home on wheels from wobbling all over the place while you walk around inside.
The Airstream part number for the original jacks is 400093-A, and the manufacturer’s number for the replacements (which are pretty much identical) is 20-8-T.
You can weld the jacks to the frame, but it’s much easier (and equally effective) to simply bolt each jack to the frame of the Airstream (be sure to bolt to the appropriate cross members). I used self-threading bolts and drove them directly through each jack’s 1/4″ holes and into the Airstream frame. The bolts are really only holding the jacks to the frame; once opened, the jacks stay in place because the weight of the trailer is bearing down upon them (gravity!).
You will want to be sure you are getting jacks with the extended operating arm, as it protrudes farther to the edge of the trailer than the “normal” operating arm. If you have the shorter arm, you will have to crawl under your Airstream every time you need to extend the jack. The operating arm is turned by a crank, but I plan on keeping a socket in my Airstream toolkit so I can operate the jack with my drill (manual cranking is for chumps).
I have heard many tales of people forgetting to crank up their jacks when they leave a site. As you can imagine, this could cause some pretty serious damage to your trailer’s underside, not to mention destruction of the jacks themselves.
Also, NEVER use your jacks to lift the trailer. They are rated for 2,000#’s (static load) each, but they are NOT meant to lift your Airstream off the ground.
Deluxe BAL “T” Type Stabilizing Jack (20-8-T) mounting and operation manual via Norco Industries
If you’re going to work on an Airstream, you have to know about rivets. Here is some basic information to get you started.
First of all, there really shouldn’t be any screws on an Airstream. Screws will back out of their holes with the constant road vibration that an Airstream experiences, so eventually a screw will no longer be holding whatever it was screwed into. Rivets are more “permanent” in that they stay put. But don’t worry, they are easy to drill out if you need to change something you’ve riveted.
There are two types of rivets on an Airstream: bucked rivets and blind rivets. Airstreams use only two sizes: 1/8″ and 5/32.” The 1/8″ rivets are generally used for trim on the exterior, and to hold the skins to the ribs on the interior. The 5/32″ rivets actually hold the Airstream together (panels and ribs).
Blind rivets get their name because you can install them in situations where you can’t see both sides of the surface being riveted (there is a blind side). So if you are fastening something to another surface without being able to see the back (like skins or trim), you would use a blind rivet.
There are two types of blind rivets, often referred to as “Olympic” and “pop” rivets.
The pop rivet is a pin with a bulb head (the mandrel) inserted through a cylindrical shaft. The rivet is “pulled” with either a manual or pneumatic puller. The center pin pulls into the shaft which in turn expands and keeps the rivet in place. The pulling tool cuts the pin at the head once it pulls into the shaft leaving a dimple in the head where the pin has been cut off.
You can get a manual rivet puller from Harbor Freight for under $10. This is pretty nice to have on the road, as you can pull rivets without needing an air compressor. The pneumatic rivet puller is a bit nicer, especially if you are doing a LOT of rivets, but obviously it requires a compressor, so it isn’t as portable for road repairs.
The Olympic rivet operates on similar principal to the pop rivet, but the containing shaft splits into three arms that hold the rivet from behind the sheet being riveted (like a drywall anchor). You can machine/shave a blind rivet to make it look like a bucked rivet with a smooth head (see photos below).
Here is a good thread on Airforums containing the photos below regarding how Olympic rivets work (the photos are from user flyfshr).
For the record, Olympic is actually a brand name, not a type of rivet (like Kleenex is synonymous with tissue). There are many types of rivets made under the Olympic name. Only one type is originally used on Airstreams. They’re called Olympic Bulb-Tite Shaveable Head rivets, either 1/8″ in size or 5/32″.
Bucked rivets look like tiny metal mushrooms. There are no moving parts. A bucked rivet is hammered with a pneumatic riveting gun, and the soft aluminum mushrooms out to hold the rivet in place. Buck riveting usually takes two people, because someone needs to hammer one side while someone else “backs” the rivet by holding a small anvil (the buck bar) against it.
Advice on rivet length from this thread:
Always try to use the correct length rivet. It should be long enough to penetrate the parts to be riveted and still protrude to a length approximately 1-1/2 times the rivet diameter. In other words, a 1/8″ diameter rivet should stick out about 3/16″ (certainly not less than 1/8″) before it is bucked.
The rivets on my Airstream aren’t all perfect (some are far from it, in fact). There seem to be a lot of factory rivets that were skipped or at least skimped on. Below you can see some examples of what I’m talking about.
Before (through the holes, but not really mushroomed and holding anything together):
After (mushroomed out and actually holding the two pieces of aluminum together):
I love clecos. Mostly just because they look cool. They are like clamps for riveting. Basically they are temporary rivets. You place clecos in rivet holes using a special cleco tool (cleco pliers) that makes the spring-loaded cleco grab and release by pushing on the end of it.
Rivets are removed by drilling them out.
Sometimes you will see/hear people using a number instead of a size (inches or millimeters) for a drill bit.
5/32″ is .15625 and a #21 is .159; thus the #21 drill bit gives a 5/32″ rivet a little clearance to slide into the hole.
#40 = 3/32”
#30 = 1/8” (which is the shank size of the rivets used most extensively in assembling the interior of an Airstream)
#10 = 3/16”
For removing Olympic rivets, Andy from Inland RV says:
An Olympic rivet is 5/32 which is .15625 inches
#20 is .161
#21 is .159
#22 is .157
The best drill bit size to use is a #21, since a hole will not be perfectly round, unless using a drill press.
Andy also says:
Olympic rivets for Airstream usage have always been 5/32 shank, but with the same size “brazier head” as the 1/8 buck rivets.
That is so the looks do not basically change and the strength of the shank was maximized, so as to be similair to the buck rivets shan strength.
For what it’s worth, I have just been using 1/8″ and 5/32″ drill bits to remove rivets and to install rivets. I simply use the bit to route out the head, and when that pops off (sometimes you might want to use a sharp chisel to carefully shave the head if it’s being stubborn), I make sure to be centered and drill out the old rivet body.
Removing a solid rivet: http://wiki.matronics.com/wiki/index.php/Removing_Solid_Rivets
post #14 = pics of all the rivets
Our Airstream came to us with the exterior running lights already wired (a mixed blessing: they don’t look as cool as I’d like, but I didn’t have to do anything with the lights to drive it home). Some (not all) of the lights had been replaced with LED, but the housing on those new LED lights doesn’t have a gasket at the base; rather, it looks like it’s missing a gasket around the base of the light.
Evidently this is how they are supposed to look, but I wish it looked a little more integrated. I’m going to leave them as-is for now (they work and they don’t let water in), but maybe someday I’ll make them a little more “fancy.”
Today I removed, cleaned, and reinstalled a VistaVue Window. Someone had tried to “repair” the leaks in the window with about a gallon of silicon (only a slight exaggeration). Don’t EVER use silicon to “fix” leaks on an Airstream. It looks awful and is impossible to remove if you need to redo the seal. The only place you should use silicone is to adhere weather stripping gasket (around doors, windows, and hatches) and where glass is in direct contact with something (meaning, a window gasket). Instead of using silicone, use a polyurethane caulk. I really like TremPro 635. Parabond comes in a container that’s more like a toothpaste tube, so it might be easier to take with you for mobile repairs.
I drilled out all the bucked rivets, removed the tons and tons of silicon and other adhesives from the resulting hole in the Airstream as well as the window bracket (the aluminum around the glass), then I went the extra step and removed the bracket from the glass and cleaned the gasket that was in between the glass and aluminum frame. Getting the frame off of the glass can be tricky. There are actually metal pins in each channel where the two pieces of the frame come together in the center.
The bottom pins had rusted away completely from water sitting inside the window frame, but the top pins were still there (and very strong). I ended up prying the two frame pieces apart slightly with a chisel, then I cut the two pins with a Dremel cut-off wheel.
These pins will slide in their respective channels (though it’s hard to move them), so I ended up leaving them in place, then pushed them back over to function as they original did once I put the two pieces of aluminum frame back together. One half of each pin will still work even though they are shorter now from being cut. I thought about trying to get the second half of each pin out to use on the other side, but they are in there REALLY tightly and the small channels for the pins in the other side were too badly corroded to accommodate the pins anyway.
I used a brass wire brush (gentler than steel so it doesn’t deep-scratch and ruin the soft aluminum) to clean the big stuff off of the aluminum surfaces of the Airstream body and window frame, then mineral spirits and a rough rag to remove the smaller left over gunk. I used a razor blade to carefully remove silicone from the surface of the glass, then went over the glass with mineral spirits and a rough rag. I also found that if I was gentle I could use super fine (0000) steel wool to help get off the really tenacious stuff without scratching the glass.
I washed the gasket with warm, soapy water.
The gasket had hardened a bit on the lower side (where water and minerals had sat in the frame), but there was only one small split in the actual material, so I decided to reuse the gasket instead of ordering more and having to wait for it to arrive (VTS: 70’s Window Gasket). This also meant the gasket would be a single, continuous piece and already sized for the window so I didn’t need to worry about over stretching the gasket material.
I have read on other blogs that people have forgone the gasket and just set the glass inside the frame after applying liberal amounts of silicone, but I like that I don’t have to worry about the glass touching the metal frame, and the gasket gives it a firmer hold (it is tight in the frame channel).
After washing the gasket thoroughly and cleaning out the window frame channel with a brass wire brush and mineral spirits, I squeezed clear 3M Marine Silicone (purchased at the local big box store) into the gasket and slipped the gasket over the edge of the window glass. I then squeezed a liberal amount of the clear silicone into the two pieces of window frame and slid the two pieces of the aluminum frame over the glass and gasket.
You need to clamp the frame onto the glass while it dries. I used a ratched strap for the long axis, and cheap Harbor Freight grip clamps for the shorter axis.
Unfortunately, I made the mistake of clamping the center of the frame too tight and ended up with a slightly “bow tie” shaped window frame; the added bonus here was that the center holes no longer lined up to the skin for riveting. What this means is that the corners of the frame are not snug against the glass, thus you shouldn’t try to make the center of the frame snug against the glass or you will end up with the bow tie like I did.
I solved the problem by using a clamp (reversed) to stretch out the center of the frame and am just crossing my fingers that the seal holds up (I re-siliconed the gaps where the gasket pulled away from the frame, but I’m hoping there was enough silicone in the channel that it wouldn’t have leaked anyway).
Butyl tape (that stuff is GREAT) was placed around the perimeter of the window frame before riveting the window back in place. I am leaving the butyl tape “squished out” for a while so it can shrink and expand in the sun, then I’ll trim it with a utility knife.
Hopefully the leaks are now banished forever! See the complete photo gallery from the job below.
This “Master To Do List” might be a stupid idea (depressing to look at in a couple of years, when I still haven’t installed a sink!), but it’ll help me keep track of ideas and maybe link to the posts covering these topics.